International Time Recording Company (1888)
Computing Scale Company (1891)
Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (1911)
The company which became IBM was founded in 1896 as the Tabulating Machine Company by Herman Hollerith, in Broome County, New York (Endicott, New York, where it still maintains very limited operations). It was incorporated as Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR)
on June 16, 1911, and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1916.
International Business Machines (1924)
IBM adopted its current name in 1924, when it became an international manufacturing company. The logo that was used from 1924 to 1946. The logo is in a form intended to suggest a globe, girdled by the word "International".
IBM Logo on 1947
The logo that was used from 1947 to 1956. The familiar "globe" was replaced with the simple letters "IBM" in a typeface called "Beton Bold."
IBM Logo on 1956
The logo that was used from 1956 to 1972. The letters "IBM" took on a more solid, grounded and balanced appearance.
IBM Current Logo (since 1972)
In 1972, the horizontal stripes now replaced the solid letters to suggest "speed and dynamism." This logo (in two versions, 8-bar and 13-bar), as well as the previous one, was designed by graphic designer Paul Rand.
Logos designed in the 1970s tended to be sensitive to the technical limitations of photocopiers, which were then being widely deployed. A logo with large solid areas tended to be poorly copied by copiers in the 1970s, so companies preferred logos that avoided large solid areas. The 1972 IBM logos are an example of this tendency. With the advent of digital copiers in the mid-1980s this technical restriction had largely disappeared; at roughly the same time, the 13-bar logo was abandoned for almost the opposite reason – it was difficult to render accurately on the low-resolution digital printers (240 dots per inch) of the time.
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